The Innovative Pedagogy 2016 report explores new forms of teaching and learning in a digital world, and looks at 10 innovations that have not yet influenced post-school education. This is the fifth annual report produced by the Open University in the UK. This year the report was produced in conjunction with the National Institute of Education in Singapore. The 10 innovations are listed in the order of possible widespread adoption.
- Learning through social media: People use social media such as Twitter and Facebook for informal learning. A range of learning opportunities is available such as access to expert advice, encounter challenges, defend opinions and amend ideas in the face of criticism. However, learners may also encounter inaccurate information, biased comments and hostile responses.
- Productive failure: A method of teaching that gives students complex problems to solve and attempt to form their own solutions before receiving instruction. By struggling and sometimes failing to find a solution, students gain a deeper understanding of the structure of the problem and its elements.
- Teachback: One person (a teacher, an expert, or another student) explains their knowledge of a topic to a learner. Then that learner attempts to explain, or teach back, what they have understood. This helps learners to understand a topic or problem by reframing it in their own terms and explain what they have learned in a way that is understandable.
- Design thinking: Solving problems using the methods and thinking processes used by designers e.g. experimenting, creating and prototyping models, soliciting feedback, and redesigning.
- Learning from the crowd: Amateurs and experts exchange ideas, generate and discuss content, solve problems, vote for the best solutions, and raise funds. A classic example is Wikipedia. Possible applications of crowdsourcing in education include collecting and curating teaching resources, letting students share and discuss their work online, and providing opinions and data for use in projects and research studies.
- Learning through video games: The focus can be on games designed for education, the use of game elements in workplace training, simulations such as flight trainers, or on social benefit. However, it is difficult to balance learning with fun.
- Formative analytics: Support learners to reflect on what they have learned, what can be improved, which goals can be achieved, and how they should move forward. Focusing on analytics for learning, rather than analytics of learning, can empower each learner through timely, personalised, and automated feedback.
- Learning for the future: Learners need to be educated not just for today but for the future. They should acquire skills and dispositions that will enable them to cope with an uncertain life and a complex work environment. Learning for the future builds human capacity to learn.
- Translanguaging: In a globalised world, many learners study in and speak a language that is not their mother tongue. Translanguaging refers to moving flexibly and fluidly between languages. Pedagogical strategies engage the language abilities of bilingual students in teaching and learning, for example by using bilingual partners, organising international collaboration, searching the internet in multiple languages and accessing a wide range of online communities and resources.
- Blockchain for learning: A blockchain stores digital events securely on every user’s computer rather than in a central database (the technology behind digital currencies like Bitcoin). Blockchain learning explores how this approach could be applied to education in which achievements are recorded by a wider range of participants. A blockchain could be used as a permanent shared record of intellectual achievement.
An interesting list of possible innovations in education. Surprisingly, there does not seem to be any overlap with the list of innovations in the 2015 report. The report provides a mix of approaches that are not new, but not widely implemented in formal education (video games, social media, design thinking), together with non-education innovations with potential for learning (blockchain) and some creative pedagogical approaches (teachback, productive failure).
Sharples, M., de Roock , R., Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., Herodotou, C., Koh, E., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Looi, C-K, McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., Wong, L. H. (2016). Innovating Pedagogy 2016: Open University Innovation Report 5. Milton Keynes: The Open University.