Innovative Pedagogy 2017

The Innovative Pedagogy 2017 report explores new forms of teaching and learning in a digital world, and looks at 10 innovations that have not yet influenced post-school education. This is the sixth annual report produced by the Open University in the UK. This year the report was produced in collaboration with the Learning In a NetworKed Society (LINKS) Israeli Center of Research Excellence (I-CORE). The 10 innovations are listed in the order of possible widespread adoption.

  1. Spaced learning: It is known that we learn facts better in a series of short chunks with gaps between them, rather than in a long teaching session such as a lecture.  Recent research in neuroscience has uncovered the detail of how we produce long-term memories. This has led to a teaching method of spaced repetition that occurs in the following order: (1) a teacher gives information for 20 minutes; (2) students take a break of 10 minutes to participate in an unconnected practical activity such as aerobics or modelling; (3) students are asked to recall key information for 20 minutes, followed by a 10-minute break; and (4) students apply their new knowledge for a final 20 minutes. A study of spaced learning shows a significant increase in learning compared to a typical lesson.
  2. Learners making science: Citizens need the skills and knowledge to solve problems, evaluate evidence, and make sense of complex information from
    various sources. A strong understanding of Science, Technology, Engineering,
    and Maths (STEM) topics can develop these skills. Enabling learners to experience how Science is made can enhance their content knowledge. It can also develop scientific skills, contribute to their personal growth, and result in identity change and an increased understanding of what it means to be a scientist. These changes can be achieved through participation and contribution to citizen science activities that are personally relevant, promote engagement with both social and natural sciences and scaffold understanding of the scientific method, critical thinking, and reflection.
  3. Open textbooks: Open textbooks are freely shareable and editable resources
    designed to operate in place of a specified textbook. As one approach to open educational resources (OER), they are not locked down by copyright restrictions but have an open licence that enables everyone to reuse, remix, revise, redistribute and retain them. These books are adaptable – not fixed and static resources but  dynamic ones. Students can edit and amend an open textbook as part of their study. This helps them to understand knowledge as an ongoing process in which they play an active role. These textbooks can be seen as part of a broader move towards ‘open pedagogy’, which emphasises open content and open practices.
  4. Navigating post-truth societies: Fake news and information bubbles are not
    new but awareness of their impact on public opinion has increased. People
    need to be able to evaluate and share information responsibly. One response
    is to integrate these skills within the curriculum. However, how can we know which sources to trust? The ways in which people think about such questions are called ‘epistemic cognition’. Researchers have developed ways of promoting learners’ epistemic cognition. These include promoting understanding of the nature of knowledge and justification as well as fostering abilities to assess the validity of claims and form sound arguments.
  5. Intergroup empathy: Online environments, such as social media, form global virtual spaces. In these, people from different backgrounds interact with each other, even if they come from countries or cultures that are engaged in conflict. This means that skills such as communication, teamwork, and empathy are important. An ‘us’ versus ‘them’ perspective makes it difficult to empathise – to understand and share the feelings of members of the other group. The effects of intergroup conflicts can spill over into online communities, provoking strong negative emotions and the use of stereotypes. In such cases, activities designed to promote intergroup empathy can provide effective responses and help to reduce tensions.
  6. Immersive learning: Learning based on experience and exploration can be
    intensified through immersion. It can enable people to experience a situation
    as if they were there, deploying their knowledge and resources to solve a
    problem or practise a skill. The learning comes from integrating vision, sound,
    movement, spatial awareness, and even touch. By using technologies such as virtual reality, 3D screens or handheld devices, learners can experience immersive learning in a classroom, at home, or outdoors. This enables them to explore possibilities that would be difficult, dangerous, or impossible in everyday life.
  7. Student-led analytics:  Learning analytics make use of the data generated during study activity in order to enhance learning and teaching. They often focus on how teachers and institutions can help learners to pass a test, a module, or a degree. Student-led analytics, on the other hand, not only invite students to reflect on the feedback they receive but also start them on the path of setting their own learning goals. These analytics put learners in the driving seat. Learners can decide which goals and ambitions they want to achieve, and which types and forms of learning analytic they want to use to achieve those targets. The analytics then support learners to reach their goals.
  8. Big-data inquiry: thinking with data: New forms of data, data visualisation and human interaction with data are changing radically and rapidly. As a result, what it means to be ‘data literate’ is also changing. In the big data era, people should no longer be passive recipients of data-based reports. They need to become active data explorers who can plan for, acquire, manage, analyse, and infer from data. The goal is to use data to describe the world and answer puzzling questions with the help of data analysis tools and visualisations. Understanding big data and its powers and limitations is important to active citizenship and to the prosperity of democratic societies. Today’s students therefore need to learn to work and think with data from an early age, so they are prepared for the data driven society in which they live.
  9. Learning with internal values: Throughout life, significant learning is triggered, monitored, and owned by us as individuals. This learning is rooted in our own needs and interests and shaped by our internal values. However, schools and a national curriculum need to conform to a set of external values. These are unlikely to align exactly with the learning that is based on individual students’ internal values. Efforts have been made to design and develop programmes that can meet this challenge. The main approach offers students choice about what and how they learn. At the same time, it equips them with means to develop appropriate  knowledge, skills and ways of thinking in order to support their learning. This approach balances the learning based on students’ internal values with the learning that is required by the normative values of educational systems.
  10. Humanistic knowledge-building communities: The goal of humanistic education is to help people become open to experience, highly creative, and self-directed (person-centred). Knowledge-building communities aim to advance the collective knowledge of a community (idea-centred). When the two approaches are combined, they create a new one: humanistic knowledge-building communities. Students can develop their knowledge and selves in integrated and transformative ways.

 

Reference:
Ferguson, R., Barzilai, S., Ben-Zvi, D., Chinn, C.A., Herodotou, C., Hod, Y., Kali, Y., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Kupermintz, H., McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Sagy, O., Scanlon, E., Sharples, M., Weller, M., & Whitelock, D. (2017). Innovating Pedagogy 2017: Open University Innovation Report 6. Milton Keynes: The Open University, UK.

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Top Learning Tools for Education 2017

As every year, Jane Hart of C4LPT has compiled an annual list of top learning tools. This year, over 2000 learning professionals across the world from both education and business contributed to the 11th Annual Survey of Learning Tools. This year the list was expanded from the Top 100 to the Top 200. Three sub-lists were made for personal learning, workplace learning and education. I will focus on the education list that covers tools used in primary, secondary and tertiary education. I have grouped the Top 20 Tools in the Education list according to 4 categories:

Content Development or Consumption Tools
2. Word (last year: 10)
3. PowerPoint (last year: 3)
4. YouTube (last year: 1)
6. Excel (last year: outside top 20)
7. Wikipedia (last year: outside top 20)
8. Prezi (last year: 8)
11. WordPress (last year: 13)
16. Audacity (last year: outside top 20)
19. Canva (last year: outside top 20)

Social Tools
1. Google Drive (last year: 2)
9. Twitter (last year: 5)
12. Facebook (last year: 15)
13. Dropbox (last year: 6)
14. WhatsApp (last year: outside top 20)
18. Padlet (last year: 18)

Instructional Tools
10. Kahoot (last year: 8)
17. Moodle (last year: 11)

Personal and Research Tools
5. Google Search (last year: 4)
15. OneNote (last year: outside top 20)
20. Google Scholar (last year: outside top 20)

Most of the tools listed above would be on my list as well. There are no new tools for me, although Canva is a tool I have only started to use recently.

Pushing the Boundaries of Higher Education Conference

UOC organised a conference entitled “Pushing the boundaries of Higher Education: Challenging traditional models with innovative and creative practices” on 3 October at the CaixaForum in Barcelona. Several international speakers were invited to share their thoughts on innovative and creative practices in higher education. You can read their thought pieces at the associated conference site.  The PhD students were also fortunate to share a round table at the event to discuss our research and our responses to the conference speakers. I have summarised the main points from the speakers below:

Theme 1: Fostering Innovative Practices and Self-Regulated Learners

Heutagogy (Lisa Blaschke)

  • A challenge educators face is employer dissatisfaction with graduates not having the necessary skills. Employers want autonomous or self-motivated graduates to manage complexity. Yet educators prefer traditional instruction styles. Challenges for students include rising education costs.
  • Heutagogy is self-determined learning, a learner-centred approach based on principles of agency, self-efficiency, reflection and meta-cognition. Learners are at the centre, they control their learning paths and outcomes. When combined with social media, learners created Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) and develop personal learning networks. Examples of social media use include curation (Scoopit), reflection blogs, participation in MOOCs, and sharing (Instagram and WhatsApp).
  • This involves students being involved in: what is learned and how, and the assessment is decided together with the educator. The educator guides and scaffolds the process. This approach is suited to open and distance learning.
  • Challenges to adopting heutagogy: there is greater responsibility required for students to be autonomous, it is difficult to return to passive/formal pedagogies, a fear of loss of control by the educator, assessment becomes more difficult, as rely on some self-assessment.
  • Benefits of heutagogy: Improve critical thinking, reflection, engagement, promote independence and self-confidence.
  • Link to thought piece.

Innovations and Traditions in Teaching and Learning (Tony Bates)

  • Challenges facing higher education include: a shift from content delivery to higher order skills, need for expertise in pedagogy, technology and subject matter, increasing diversity in students, increasing costs of higher education.
  • What is meant by innovation? Although the meaning varies, it can be considered the use of technology to solve a particular problem.
  • Variables to consider: spread of academic disciplines, reasons for the innovation (main reasons are to increase access or to provide greater flexibility), based on research or best practice (most innovations did not consider research or best practice), the technologies and pedagogies used (most innovations did not use leading edge technologies or pedagogies, focused on lecture capture, web conferencing, LMS, mobile apps, social media), the outcomes that are sought (only ½ of studies had changes in the teaching approach to develop knowledge management, critical thinking, problem solving or teamwork), the diffusion of the innovation (most innovations did not spread outside the department).
  • The use of technology needs to be combined with innovative teaching methods.
  • Link to thought piece.

Theme 2: Switching from Content Delivery to Epistemic Practices

Learning in MOOCs: The [Un]democratisation of Learning (Alison Littlejohn)

  • MOOCs seen as disruptors and democratising forces in online education, characterised by scale and diversity of learning. But while MOOCs do widen access, they tend to attract those who are already well-educated. They tend to be designed for those who know how to learn (not scaffolded) and conform to traditional norms (not own path) with the aid of an expert teacher.
  • Learners engage differently in MOOCs, not all aim to complete, some only want to be present or to have the experience or only to learn about a specific concept. Therefore, we need to rethink the metrics.
  • There are other tensions in MOOCs. There is a tension between learner autonomy and conforming with norms/passive learning. There is a tension between observing the activity of learning that occurs within the MOOC platform, while students learn in their own environments e.g. social media or in physical meetings. Traces offer fragments of how learners learn and only provide fractured views of progress against learners’ own goals. Many MOOCs are designed for students who are able to learn, excluding those who are not autonomous learners. The extent of help provided by learning analytics is questionable (focus on what is easy to measure rather than what is critical for learning).
  • Competencies to consider: analyse personal motivation, goal setting, strategic planning and learning progress, help learners plan and manage time.
  • In summary, supporting learners learning how to learn is complex and resource intensive. The challenge is not to think about MOOCs as a product of consumption.
  • Link to thought piece.

Content is King – Welcome to Tubeocracy! (Yishay Mor)

  • Teachers are failing students and institutions are failing students, so students turn to unregulated sources of knowledge
  • Postulates, we live in an era of:
    • Pervasive data abundance – big data dominating lives, potential efficiency, massification and personalisation. Data literacy is thus important. However ethical, cultural and philosophical questions are raised.
    • Pervasive information abundance: Good teachers cannot be replaced by machines, good teachers provide questions, not answers.
    • Transient procedural knowledge: knowledge of “how to” changes.
    • Eroding epistemic knowledge: flooded with content and “anything goes”.
  • Future
    • Hybridity: transcend disciplines & learning structures for ill-defined, authentic tasks
    • Empowerment: emphasise autonomy and independence
    • Criticality: critical and reflective mindset
  • Link to thought piece.

Future of Education or Future of Learning (Philip Schmidt)

  • Learning involves acquiring and developing skills, knowledge and competencies, while education is the system to enable learning
  • Lifelong learning focuses on learning over a lifetime, while lifewide learning focuses on the learning contexts, places and spaces.
  • Peer2Peer University is an example of lifelong and lifewide learning that originally provided online support spaces, but shifted focus because it was improving quality, but not access. Now they work with public libraries to create learning circles in local communities. It provides a mix between global and online and small and local.
  • Pressures: sustainability and financial models, preparing generations for significant problems such as climate change, preparing to create fulfilling societies e.g. the automation of jobs.
  • There is a difference between content of learning and practice of learning. Creative learning involves the 4 Ps: projects, peers, passion and play.
  • Link to video.

 

Theme 3: Next Generation Learning Environments

The LMS is dead: thoughts on the NGDLE (Jim Groom)

  • Personal APIs – individuals control over who has access to their online data.
  • LMSs/VLEs remain central to future but through decoupling the pieces, integration through APIs and LTIs (learning tools integration for single sign-on). But this is not revolutionary, it is embedding scripts in the LMS. Many personalisation and analytics are 3rd party commercial services that depend on data collection. Web platforms exist to capture and monetise data. Technologies in closed systems create roadblocks for educators and students.
  • Who manages and controls our “life bits” (the digital bits we share)?
  • Link to thought piece.

Interventions (Brian Lamb)

  • LMS designs are teacher and course centric. Often used with the metaphor of lego blocks, which were applied to learning objects too.
  • Calls for interoperability to promote open seamless ecosystems for personalised learning experiences.
  • Ideas: digital sanctuary in practice, digital and data literacy, the idea of SPLOTS (simplest possible online tools) and more ethical online teaching.
  • Link to thought piece.

Theme 4: Leveraging the affordances of technology and learning design

Value-based Vision-driven Learning Design (Rikke Norgard)

  • Provision of systems where students can take courses when they want, at a pace they want, with auto-assessment.
  • Universities were seen as a factory for society’s workforce, therefore focused on competencies, rankings and utility. But there is a push for academic citizenship. And a push against walled gardens and the transmission of content and marketisation of education. There is a move to co-creation, collectiveness, citizenship, and critical-creativity. An opportunity to connect educational values and teacher visions with pedagogical principles and design patterns and learning experiences
  • Focus on the problem and the vision, the learning experience, pedagogy, learning activities and patterns as well as the materials and tools to achieve learning outcomes.
  • Link to thought piece.

Digital Networks (Terry Anderson)

  • Higher education continues to sustain a hidden curriculum (norms, values and beliefs). There is a call to use the real world, rather than campus as context for learning. Educational experiences now extend to YouTube, Twitter and Facebook. But most teachers do not use social tools (either inside or outside the LMS) such as blogs or wikis and focus on the administrative tools. Educators do not adopt technologies until they see a perceived benefit and have the self-efficacy to believe efforts will be successful.
  • Issues to consider: a networking system and digital competence
  • Link to thought piece.

 

NMC Horizon Report for Higher Education 2017

The annual NMC Horizon Report for Higher Education has just been released. It contains 6 key trends in educational technology, 6 challenges to overcome and predicts 6 developments in educational technology. It is similar to the previous editions (see my posts from 2016 and 2015). This year the report shows the trends, challenges and developments in educational technology over the past 6 years. This shows how the different topics change from year to year.

Key Trends Accelerating Technology Adoption in Higher Education

  • Collaborative Learning – based on the perspective that learning is a social construct.
  • Blended Learning Designs – Perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favour as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning
  • Redesigning Learning Spaces – Educational settings are increasingly designed to support project-based interactions with attention to greater mobility, flexibility, and multiple device usage.
  • Growing Focus on Measuring Learning – an interest in assessment and the wide variety
  • of methods and tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, and other educational needs of students
  • Deeper Learning Approaches – mastery of content that engages students in critical thinking, problem-solving, collaboration, and self-directed learning
  • Advancing Cultures of Innovation – campuses will become places for entrepreneurship and discovery. Creating a culture that promotes experimentation and accepting failure as an important part of learning.

Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption in Higher Education

  • Improving Digital Literacy – Due to the multitude of elements comprising digital literacy, higher education leaders are challenged to obtain institution-wide buy-in and to support all stakeholders in developing these competencies.
  • Integrating Formal and Informal Learning – there is a lack of scalable methods of formally documenting and assessing skills mastered outside of the classroom and adapting pricing structures and financial aid models to fit new degree options
  • Achievement Gap: reducing the disparity in the enrolment and academic performance between student groups, defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender
  • Advancing Digital Equity: improving access to broadband internet is necessary to promote full participation, communication, and learning within society
  • Managing Knowledge Obsolescence: Staying organized and current presents a challenge to academics  in a world where educational needs, software, and devices advance at a strenuous rate
  • Rethinking the Roles of Educators: Educators are increasingly expected to employ a variety of technology-based tools, active learning methodologies and the rise of competency-based education.

Important Developments in Educational Technology for Higher Education

Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less

  • Adaptive Learning Technologies: encompassed by the personalized learning movement and closely linked to learning analytics, adaptive learning refers to the technologies monitoring student progress, using data to modify instruction at any time.
  • Mobile Learning: the pervasiveness of mobile devices is changing the way people interact with content and their surroundings. As the processing power of smartphones, smartwatches, and tablets continues to increase dramatically, mobile learning, or m-learning, enables learners to access materials anywhere, often across multiple devices.

Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years

  • The Internet of Things: consists of objects endowed with computing power through processors or embedded sensors that are capable of transmitting information across networks. Connected devices are generating data on student learning and campus activity, informing the direction of content delivery and institutional planning.
  • Next-Generation LMS: the development of more flexible spaces that support personalisation, meet universal design standards, and play a larger role in formative learning assessment. Rather than existing as single applications, they are a confederation of IT systems and application components.

Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years

  • Artificial Intelligence: As the underlying technologies continue to develop, AI has the potential to enhance online learning, adaptive learning software, and research processes in ways that more intuitively respond to and engage with students.
  • Natural User Interfaces: There is a rising level of interactive fidelity in systems that understand gestures, facial expressions, and their nuances, as well as the convergence of gesture-sensing technology with voice recognition.

For a good review of the NMC Horizon Report 2017 (as well previous editions) see the blogpost by Audrey Watters What’s on the Horizon (Still, Again, Always) for Ed-Tech. It shows how “haphazard” predicting the future can be.

In terms of technologies, I do not think these technologies will be broadly adopted in the time frames suggested. However, where they refer to mobile learning, I see this as multiple device learning, which ties into my research, which I think is probably more of a medium-term horizon.

Reference

Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Davis, A., Freeman, A., Hall Giesinger, C., and Ananthanarayanan, V. (2017). NMC Horizon Report: 2017 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.

Reimagining the Role of Technology in Higher Education

Yesterday I wrote about the US National Education Technology Plan. There is also a higher education supplement to this plan. The Higher Education Supplement to the National Education Technology Plan (NETP) 2017 from the US Department of Education sets out a vision for learning enabled by technology in the context of higher education. The supplement, like the plan,  focuses on the areas of Learning, Teaching, Leadership, Assessment, and Infrastructure.

What is Higher Ed? A Student Prospectus

  • New “normal” students transfer between institutions, may have dependents, work (part or full time), and study part-time
  • Ecosystem: Learning is lifelong (occurring at different times) and lifewide (education at work, home and other settings)
  • Design principles:
    • Education that enables students to achieve their goals, is suitable to their needs, and aligns with their interests
    • Helps students make wise financial decisions about education
    • Prepare students for postsecondary work
    • Allow students to adjust the timing and format of education to fit in other priorities
    • Provide affordable access to high-quality resources
    • Help students progress through times of transition and changing needs
    • Collect and use real-time learning data to assist students
    • Allow students to build meaningful education pathways
    • Allow students to document their learning in portable ways
    • Create a network of learning that supports students as creators and entrepreneurs

Engaging and Empowering Learning Through Technology

The goal is for learners to have engaging and empowering learning experiences in both formal and informal settings, in multiple contexts and various stages of life. Technology supports learners to scaffold their learning, document their competencies, and form meaningful connections with educators and peers.

  • Technology-Enabled Learning in Action
    • Access learning opportunities outside of the traditional barriers of time and space (flexible programmes)
    • Access learning opportunities outside of formal education institutions (receive credit for workplace or community experiences)
    • Access high-quality online learning resources (including OERs)
    • Learning experiences through blended learning models
    • Support student learning based on individual academic and non-academic needs (personalised feedback)
    • Participation of students with disabilities
  • Recommendations
    • Promote excellence in learning (use available formative and summative data to study how students are learning, review course failure and withdrawal rates and support student success, use learning analytics, research into how students learn in technology-rich environments)
    • Use technology to transform learning (increase collaborative and project-based learning, ensure accessibility or born accessible design)
    • Develop collaborative learning scenarios (support flexible pathways to completion, diversity in students, engage stakeholders in enhancing programmes)

Teaching with Technology

The goal is to design learning experiences that better support and enable learning, while improving the instructional approach over time.

  • Technology-Enabled Teaching in Action
    • Use student learning data to provide targeted interventions and tailored feedback
    • Use student learning data to evaluate the efficacy of new practices or technologies
    • Create active learning environments that connect students with content in different ways (inquiry-based learning, collaboration, real-world challenges)
    • Use tools to provide personal and connected experiences (virtual labs, simulations, coaching)
    • Provide high-quality resources at lower costs (not only expensive textbooks)
  • Elevating the Practice of Teaching
    • Foster ongoing professional development for teachers to develop their skills
    • Create career paths for instructors who master technology in teaching
  • Recommendations
    • Promote excellence in teaching (make resources on evidenced-based technology practices available to instructors).
    • Use technology to transform teaching (reimagine courses in ways that more actively engage students in flexible ways)
    • Develop collaborative teaching practice (co-design active learning experiences based on research)

Assessments Enabled by Technology

The goal is develop authentic assessments that enable measurement of learning and competency attainment. To improve student learning through frequent feedback and enabling personalisation.

  • Technology-Enabled Assessments in Action
    • Allow more precise measurement of student learning against clearly mapped competencies (verify and make portable)
    • Assessment through formative learning activities
    • Real-time assessments
  • Recommendations
    • Promote excellence in assessment (collaborate to create authentic assessments)
    • Transform assessment through data (determine whether student learning is accurately measured)
    • Develop collaborative assessment solutions (collaborate to provide support around assessments)

Systems That Support Student Success

The goal is to support educators and students with a robust infrastructure that bridges different learning environments.

  • Integrated Infrastructure that Supports Information-driven Student Success
    • Digital infrastructure to provide students with a mechanism to map learning and skills mastery to stackable and portable credentials
    • Controlled access and protection when using student data
    • Accessibility for all learners
    • Ubiquitous access to connectivity and devices
    • Clear Responsible Use Policies (RUP) to promote responsible use and protect privacy
  • Recommendations
    • Systems to act in tandem with policies
    • Data should be integrated, while ensuring privacy and security of information

Leadership that Enables Innovation and Change

The goal is to empower leaders to implement technology-enabled practices that optimise student success.

  • Leadership in Action
  • Leadership should work together to develop a strategy and action plan for the use of technology to support strategic plans
  • Collaborate across institutions for system-wide change
  • Recommendations
    • Develop a clear vision and strategic plan for the use of technology to enable learning
    • Create strategic networks with leaders at other institutions
    • Develop systems that support lifelong learning and lifewide learning

The Future of Higher Education

  • Focus innovation on affordable and equitable access
  • Leverage technology to deliver learning opportunities to those who need it most (access)
  • Ensure technology-enabled learning is affordable
  • Focus on completion and outcomes (whether students have met learning objectives)
  • Higher education is expanding and needs to grow more (not only traditional institutions)
  • Assembly of learning experiences and resources from various sources to increase quality and access
  • Further research that tests effectiveness and informs practice

US National Education Technology Plan 2017

The National Education Technology Plan (NETP) 2017 from the US Department of Education was recently released. It sets out a vision for learning enabled by technology at all levels of education. The plan consists of 5 sections: Learning, Teaching, Leadership, Assessment, and Infrastructure.

Learning—Engaging and Empowering Learning through Technology

The goal is for learners to have engaging and empowering learning experiences in both formal and informal settings to prepare them to be active, creative and knowledgeable and ethical citizens.

  • Technology-Enabled Learning in Action
    • Enabling personalised learning experiences (menu of learning experiences: write an essay, produce media, collect data etc.)
    • Organise learning around projects and real-world learning (sharing outputs online)
    • Learning opportunities in museums, libraries and out-of-school settings
    • Pursue passions and personal interests
  • The Future of Learning Technologies (increased games and simulations, augmented reality and virtual reality)
  • Bringing Equity to Learning Through Technology (Closing the digital divide and ensure students understand how to use technology as a tool to engage in creative, productive, lifelong learning, and not simply consuming passive content)
  • Providing Technology Accessibility for All Learners (Universal Design for Learning)
  • Physical Spaces and Technology-Enabled Learning (Flexible and blended learning spaces)
  • Recommendations
    • Develop and implement learning resources to create equitable and accessible learning ecosystems that make learning possible everywhere and all the time
    • Develop and implement learning resources that use technology to embody learning sciences design principles
    • Align learning technology resources to intended learning outcomes
    • Develop an accessible standard of learning resource design to help educators select and evaluate learning resources for accessibility and equity of learning experience
    • More research is needed on how learning sciences can inform how technology is developed and used for learning

Teaching—Teaching With Technology

The goal is for educators to be connected to people, resources, expertise and learning experiences that empower and inspire them to provide more effective teaching.

  • Roles and Practices of Educators in Technology-Supported Learning
    • Collaborate outside their own schools
    • Design engaging and relevant learning experiences (using games, social networks, simulations, and multimedia)
    • Lead evaluations and implementations of new technologies for learning
    • Motivate learners (create spaces to experiment, iterate and risk)
    • Co-learners with students and peers
    • Serve the underserved
  • Rethinking Teacher Preparation (active use of technology to enable learning, program-deep and program-wide educational technology experiences)
  • Fostering Ongoing Professional Learning and Development
  • Recommendations
    • Provide teachers educators with learning experiences powered by technology to increase their digital literacy
    • Provide learners with online access to effective teaching
    • Develop skills in online and blended instruction
    • Develop a common set of technology competencies for lecturers and teachers

Leadership—Creating a Culture and Conditions for Innovation and Change

The goal is to embed an understanding of technology-enabled education within the roles and responsibilities of educational leaders.

  • Characteristics of Effective Leadership
    • Collaborative leadership
    • Personalised student learning
    • Robust infrastructure
    • Personalised professional learning
  • Budgeting and Funding for the Transition to Digital Learning (reduce existing costs, partner with other organisations, use federal funds, rethink staff responsibilities, long-term sustainability)
  • Recommendations
    • Establish clear strategic planning connections at all levels
    • Set a vision for the use of technology to enable learning
    • Develop funding models and plans for sustainable technology purchases and leverage openly licensed content
    • Develop clear communities of practice for education leaders

Assessment—Measuring for Learning

The goal is to leverage the power of technology to measure what matters most and use assessments to improve learning

  • Approaches to Assessment (formative and summative)
  • Using Assessment Data to Support Learning
  • How Technology Transforms Assessment
    • Enhanced question types (graphic response, simulations, equation response)
    • Complex competency measurement (measure social and emotional learning)
    • Real-time feedback
    • Accessibility
    • Adapt to learner ability and knowledge (adaptive testing)
    • Embedded within the learning process
    • Assess for ongoing learning
  • The Future of Technology-Based Assessment (continuous improvement, integrated learning and assessment systems, use data appropriately, learning dashboards, micro-credentials)
  • Recommendations
    • Ensure privacy protection while ongoing gathering and sharing of assessment data for continuous improvement of learning
    • Implement learning dashboards and response systems to provide feedback about student learning
    • Create an integrated system for valid, reliable and cost-effective assessments
    • Research to explore how embedded assessment technologies (simulations, games, virtual worlds) assess and engage learners

Infrastructure—Enabling Access and Effective Use

The goal is ensure access to a robust and comprehensive infrastructure when and where it is needed for learning

  • Ubiquitous Connectivity (quality internet at school and home)
  • Powerful Learning Devices (including BYOT)
  • High-Quality Digital Learning Content (including OERs)
  • Responsible Use Policies (RUP)
  • Protections for Student Data and Privacy
  • Device and Network Management
  • Recommendations
    • Ensure broadband access to the internet and adequate wifi connectivity
    • Ensure there is at least one internet access device and appropriate software for use in and out of school
    • Support the development and use of openly licensed materials
    • Draft sustainable infrastructure plans
    • Create a map of connectivity, device access and their uses
    • Include cyber safety and cybersecurity training

Innovative Pedagogy 2016

The Innovative Pedagogy 2016 report explores new forms of teaching and learning in a digital world, and looks at 10 innovations that have not yet influenced post-school education. This is the fifth annual report produced by the Open University in the UK. This year the report was produced in conjunction with the National Institute of Education in Singapore. The 10 innovations are listed in the order of possible widespread adoption.

  1. Learning through social media: People use social media such as Twitter and Facebook for informal learning. A range of learning opportunities is available such as access to expert advice, encounter challenges, defend opinions and amend ideas in the face of criticism. However, learners may also encounter inaccurate information, biased comments and hostile responses.
  2. Productive failure: A method of teaching that gives students complex problems to solve and attempt to form their own solutions before receiving instruction. By struggling and sometimes failing to find a solution, students gain a deeper understanding of the structure of the problem and its elements.
  3. Teachback: One person (a teacher, an expert, or another student) explains their knowledge of a topic to a learner. Then that learner attempts to explain, or teach back, what they have understood. This helps learners to understand a topic or problem by reframing it in their own terms and explain what they have learned in a way that is understandable.
  4. Design thinking: Solving problems using the methods and thinking processes used by designers e.g. experimenting, creating and prototyping models, soliciting feedback, and redesigning.
  5. Learning from the crowd: Amateurs and experts exchange ideas, generate and discuss content, solve problems, vote for the best solutions, and raise funds. A classic example is Wikipedia.  Possible applications of crowdsourcing in education include collecting and curating teaching resources, letting students share and discuss their work online, and providing opinions and data for use in projects and research studies.
  6. Learning through video games: The focus can be on games designed for education, the use of game elements in workplace training, simulations such as flight trainers, or on social benefit. However, it is difficult to balance learning with fun.
  7. Formative analytics:  Support learners to reflect on what they have learned, what can be improved, which goals can be achieved, and how they should move forward. Focusing on analytics for learning, rather than analytics of learning, can empower each learner through timely, personalised, and automated feedback.
  8. Learning for the future: Learners need to be educated not just for today but for the future. They should acquire skills and dispositions that will enable them to cope with an uncertain life and a complex work environment. Learning for the future builds human capacity to learn.
  9. Translanguaging: In a globalised world, many learners study in and speak a language that is not their mother tongue. Translanguaging refers to moving flexibly and fluidly between languages. Pedagogical strategies engage the language abilities of bilingual students in teaching and learning, for example by using bilingual partners, organising international collaboration, searching the internet in multiple languages and accessing a wide range of online communities and resources.
  10. Blockchain for learning: A blockchain stores digital events securely on every user’s computer rather than in a central database (the technology behind digital currencies like Bitcoin).  Blockchain learning explores how this approach could be applied to education in which achievements are recorded by a wider range of participants. A blockchain could be used as a permanent shared record of intellectual achievement.

An interesting list of possible innovations in education. Surprisingly, there does not seem to be any overlap with the list of innovations in the 2015 report. The report provides a mix of approaches that are not new, but not widely implemented in formal education (video games, social media, design thinking), together with non-education innovations with potential for learning (blockchain) and some creative pedagogical approaches (teachback, productive failure).

Reference

Sharples, M., de Roock , R., Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., Herodotou, C., Koh, E., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Looi, C-K, McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., Wong, L. H. (2016). Innovating Pedagogy 2016: Open University Innovation Report 5. Milton Keynes: The Open University.